Antikythera 50BC about
- data/ metrics/ stats – social science
- ALT socio eco metrics/ ESG
> AI / faulty system / surveillance
theguardiann.com 15-2-2022 The innocent have paid a high price for the Post Office scandal. The guilty have not – It was the word of hundreds of Post Office workers against a faulty computer system. Guess who was believed? Marina Hyde
…”…let’s do the brief summary: between 2000 and 2014, 736 subpostmasters and postmistresses were prosecuted of theft, fraud and false accounting in the branches of the Post Office they ran. Their lives – and the lives of thousands of others – were torn apart. They were financially ruined, put out of work, locally shunned, driven into poor health and addiction, saw their marriages destroyed. Some – from a 19-year-old woman to mothers of young children to all manner of others – were imprisoned for many months. At least 33 victims of the scandal are now dead; at least four reportedly took their own lives. But … they had done nothing wrong. They had done nothing wrong. The blame in fact lay with Horizon, a faulty computer system designed by Fujitsu and imposed on their branches by Post Office management. It is currently being described as the most widespread miscarriage of justice in British history. …
Today, technology is deferred to even in the face of human tragedy far more than it was 20 years ago. Spool onward in the timeline and you will find more and more examples of ways in which technology was deemed to know best. In 2015, it emerged that in one three-year period, 2,380 sick and disabled people had died shortly after being declared “fit for work” by a computerised test, and having their sickness benefits withdrawn. Today, bereaved parents are told that nothing can be done about the algorithms that pushed their teenage children remorselessly in the direction of content they believe ultimately contributed to them taking their own lives, even as a Facebook whistleblower recently said that firm was “unwilling to accept even little slivers of profit being sacrificed for safety”. At the time the Post Office scandal began unfolding, Facebook wasn’t even a glint in Mark Zuckerberg’s eye; now, many technology firms are more powerful than nation states. At the time, Little Britain’s Carol Beer worked as a bank teller or holiday rep; now, computer-says-no culture runs the world.”
academia.pdf 11/2021 A Note on AI and the Ideology of Creativity by Michael Betancourt
academia.edu/ 2021 Should I Be Scared of Artificial Intelligence? Mohammad Mushfequr Rahman
guardian 2022 When it is successfully deployed against a target, Pegasus can be used to hack into any mobile phone and intercept phone conversations, read text messages, or view a user’s photographs. It can also be used as a remote listening device, because a government user of the spyware can use it to remotely turn a mobile phone recorder on and off.
academia.edu 2021 Artificial General Intelligence and Creative Economy Konstantinos I Kotis
ft.com 9/11/2021 We need to talk about techie tunnel vision Gillian Tett
wired.co.uk 6/2021 It’s time to ditch Chrome – As well as collecting your data, Chrome also gives Google a huge amount of control over how the web works by Kate O’Flaherty
Despite a poor reputation for privacy, Google’s Chrome browser continues to dominate. The web browser has around 65 per cent market share and two billion people are regularly using it. Its closest competitor, Apple’s Safari, lags far behind with under 20 per cent market share. That’s a lot of power, even before you consider Chrome’s data collection practices.
medium.com 2020 Is data nonrivalrous? Will Rinehart
Charles I. Jones and Christopher Tonetti ” … are upfront in their goals in that the “paper develops a theoretical framework to study the economics of data.” Continuing, they write, “the starting point for our analysis is the observation that data is nonrival. That is, at a technological level, data is infinitely usable.”
The concept of rivalrous goods was first laid out by Vincent Ostrom and Elinor Ostrom in a book chapter titled, “Public Goods and Public Choices.” Previous to this work, economists like Samuelson and Musgrave emphasized exclusion. … However, the model falls apart if there is no scale effect associated with this transferred data, such that “each firm learns only from its own consumers.” … For Jones and Tonetti, data is understood to be a radically non-specific asset where massive data sets easily yield more output. This model primitive is important. If firms are unlikely to learn productive insights from the data of others, then “there is no scale effect associated with data” and policy regimes to expand data access through property rights would be nullified. In practice, data doesn’t transfer easily. … This paper from Jones and Tonetti exemplifies the cutting edge of economic research in information. Like all research, however, it needs contextualization. The way data rivalry is defined and is then made into a model fails to capture the complexity of the real world. As such, attentive readers should be skeptical of the authors’ policy prescriptions. Data transferability is complex and public policy proposals need to take into account that complexity by avoiding simple models of a complex world.
data/metrics/stats social science
academia.edu/pdf 2021 Computational Thinking and Social Science Education Seema Shukla Ojha
“Computational thinking is one of the biggest buzzwords in education nowadays. It has even been called the 5th C of 21st-century skills. The reason for its emerging popularity is that it is engaging. If given an opportunity, we all would like to play with a data set rather than listening to someone telling us about the data set. Computational thinking as a term was popularized in 2006 by Jeanette Wing and became linked with twenty-first-century skills. Wing argued that computational thinking is “everywhere” and “for everyone.” Computational thinking is said to be an approach in which one breaks down problems into distinct parts, looks for similarities, identifes the relevant information and opportunities for simplifcation, and creates a plan fora solution. This broad problem-solving technique includes the following four elements:
- Decomposition -Breaking down problems into smaller sections.•
- Pattern recognition -Examining the problem for patterns, or similarities to previously solved problems
- Abstraction -Generalization of a problem — focus on the big picture and what’s im-portant•
- Algorithms -Solving problems through step by step instructions.
While applying above mentioned four elements of computational thinking to social sci-ence education, these were found to be highly technical, not relevant to social science, whichhas specic disciplinary needs across its multiple curricular contexts: history, geography,economics, and more (Hammond, Oltman & Manfra 2020). This led some scholars to selectand adapt a list of computational thinking skills mentioned below for social science purposes(Hammond, Oltman & Manfra 2020)
The above-mentioned formulation of “Data, Patterns, Rules and Questions” (DPR-Q) wascreated as a method for integrating computational thinking into social studies education.In simple words, we can understand that computational thinking is a set of problem-solving strategies that is intended, but not required, to take advantage of computers. Compu-tational thinking is not that dierent from critical thinking. Computational thinking is simplywaytoprocessinformationusinghigher-orderorcriticalthinking,saysJulieOltman. Whetherit is taught in coding class or social studies, the framework is the same: look at the providedinformation, narrow it down to the most valuable data, and patterns and identify themes…”…
lithub.com 10/3/2021 Is Data the Western World’s New Religion? Tim Harford in Conversation with Andrew Keen
ft.com 12.2021 The Great Post Office Scandal — a shameful story of justice denied by Rory Ceilan-Jones
goodreads.com 1999 How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff – This book introduces the reader to the niceties of samples (random or stratified random), averages (mean, median or modal), errors (probable, standard or unintentional), graphs, indexes and other tools of democratic persuasion.
AI / surveillance/ targets/ performance
ft.com 10/2021 Surveillance Darren Byler, C Shepherd
theguardian.com 2019 Shoshana Zuboff: ‘Surveillance capitalism is an assault on human autonomy’
What began as advertising is now a threat to freedom and democracy argues the author and scholar. Time to wake up – and fight for a different digital future
theguardian.com 26/10/2021 Rob Davies ‘Conditioning an entire society’: the rise of biometric data technology – The use of our bodies to unlock access to services raises concerns about the trade-off between convenience and privacy …”Experts are concerned that biometric data systems are not only flawed in some cases, but are increasingly entering our lives under the radar, with limited public knowledge or understanding…”…
theguardian.com/ 2/0121 Home schooling: ‘I’m a maths lecturer – and I had to get my children to teach me’
Many parents struggle with home schooling in lockdown. But how are three experts in maths, English and science faring? Kit Yates, Donna Ferguson
ALT socio eco metrics/ ESG etc
Read or downlod PDF here 2014 “Towards an operational measurement of socio-ecological performance” by Sigrid Stagl, Claudia Kettner, Angela Köppl
Questioning GDP as dominant indicator for economic performance has become commonplace. For economists economic policy always aims for a broader array of goals (like income, employment, price stability, trade balance) alongside income, with income being the priority objective. The Stiglitz-SenFitoussi Commission argued for extending and adapting key variables of macroeconomic analysis. International organisations such as the EC, OECD, Eurostat and UN have proposed extended arrays of macroeconomic indicators (see ‘Beyond GDP’, ‘Compendium of wellbeing indicators’, ‘GDP and Beyond’, ‘Green Economy’, ‘Green Growth’, ‘Measuring Progress of Societies’). Despite these high profile efforts, few wellbeing and environmental variables are in use in macroeconomic models. The reasons for the low uptake of socio-ecological indicators in macroeconomic models range from path dependencies in modelling, technical limitations, indicator lists being long and unworkable, choices of indicators appearing ad hoc and poor data availability. In this paper we review key approaches and identify a limited list of candidate variables and – as much as possible – offer data sources.
academia.edu/ read or download 2007 ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS – Alessandra La Notte
- Sustainability Indicators and Ecosystem and Land use Accounting,
- Environmental Accounting and Reporting at Micro Level,
- Accounting of Environmental Activities,
- Material, Energy and Carbon Accounting,
- Measurement of Decoupling, National Accounts’ Adjustment, Damage Valuation,
- Population Census 2010 as a Tool for Environmental Policy
medium.com/ 2016 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs vs. The Max Neef Model of Human Scale development by Neha Khandelwal
data / accounting
economist.com/ 2020 The economic crisis will expose a decade’s worth of corporate fraud
Downturns are accounting crooks’ worst enemy
… “Non-GAAP adjustments have spread like wildfire through corporate accounts, making it harder to discern what numbers reflect a firm’s true financial position. The average number of non-gaap measures used in filings by companies in the s&p 500 index has increased from 2.5 to 7.5 in the past 20 years, according to pwc, a consultancy. In credit agreements analysed by Zion Research Group, the definition of ebitda ranges from 75 words to over 2,200. gaap is far from perfect, but some of the divergence from it has clearly been designed to pull wool over investors’ eyes. One study found that non-gaap profits were, on average, 15% higher than gaap profits.
Playing around with earnings and revenue-recognition metrics is this generation’s equivalent of dotcoms using bots and other tricks to boost “eyeballs” 20 years ago, says Jules Kroll of k2 Intelligence, the doyen of corporate sleuths. “When an area is hot to the point of overheated, there is a growing temptation to juice the numbers.” In an ominous sign, SoftBank, a Japanese technology conglomerate which bet big on WeWork and dozens of other startups, said this week that it expects an operating loss of ¥1.4trn ($12.5bn) in its last fiscal year.
Besides exposing old schemes, the pandemic is likely to give rise to new ones. When economic survival is threatened, the line separating what is acceptable and unacceptable when booking revenues or making market disclosures can be blurred. Mr Kroll reckons that “amid such massive dislocation, some will inevitably cheat.”
Bruce Dorris, head of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, the world’s largest anti-fraud outfit, says the effects of covid-19 look like “a perfect storm for fraud”. It may engender everything from iffy accounting to stimulus-linked scams as thousands of firms—including bogus applicants—hustle for help. One fraud investigator points to private-equity-owned firms as potential targets. “There are lots of them, they are highly leveraged and they may not qualify for bail-outs because they have deep-pocketed sponsors,” he says. That increases the temptation to resort to unseemly practices. The ebbing tide is likely to reveal plenty of corporate nudity. That will not stop some businesses from taking up naturism. “